A non-government organization (NGO), non-profit, founded in 1987 by Daniel Katz, dedicated to improving sustainable agriculture and business practices. They help connect coffee-growing communities to buyers, trying to increase demand for their products and helping the communities participate in the market. Like FairTrade USA, they also educate communities in sustainability and economy.
The Rainforest Alliance launched SmartWood in 1989, the world’s first certification program for sustainable forestry.
According to the Rainforest Alliance website, “agricultural expansion is responsible for 70% of global deforestation, and the single greatest threat to tropical forests.” Farms created where forests were destroyed are responsible for soil erosion, water run-off, and habitat destruction. By replacing forest cover, they hope to reverse these negative effects.
They train tourism businesses (including lodgings and hotels) in sustainability, encourage businesses to reduce carbon emissions and purchase offsets for carbon they can’t eliminate, and they provide a website for sustainable travel.
Maintaining forest ecosystems helps reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Farmers learn how to restore tree cover, and measure and reduce carbon emissions.
They provide free education for kindergarten through eighth grade about environmental issues. They also host teacher training workshops around the world
Kid’s Corner: through interactive learning materials, kids can learn about rainforests and the people who live in them
They have two websites aimed at building connections between conservation organizations:
Eco Index: a bilingual database of conservation projects around the world
The social standards set by the Rainforest Alliance are lower than those of fair trade certification organizations. They establish only the minimum housing and sanitary conditions for farmers, but do not stipulate a minimum price requirement, usually paying farmers national minimum wage. Some corporations, such as Kraft, one of the largest coffee giants, opt only for the “Eco-OK” seal of the Rainforest Alliance, instead of the other certifications (Fair Trade, Bird Friendly, etc.)
Because the Rainforest Alliance certification is available to all types of farms, it includes some farms that are ineligible for Fair Trade certification, such as large estate farms, while fair trade certification is available only for small farmer cooperatives. And because the standards are so low, corporations and larger farms can use the seal to “greenwash” their products, affecting an air of environmental and social concern while putting only minimal effort into social justice.
- Brewing Justice: Fair Trade Coffee, Sustainability, and Survival, Daniel Jaffee
yeah, it’s a version of Photoshop. “adobe photoshop lightroom.” i haven’t figured out the basic difference (the workflow is totally different), but idk what makes one better than the other. you can use both, the book i have recommends using photoshop for more detailed and final edits, and starting edits in lightroom. idk how much it is compared to regular photoshop, though.
followers? can anyone elaborate on photoshop and photoshop lightroom?
i’m leaving the States tomorrow afternoon for study abroad (finally), and i land around 3 am NC time in tokyo. i won’t be online as often for the next few months, and i’ll probably not be on tumblr very often (except to post photos, i hope).
There is a city in Yemen called Al Makkha (al-Mukha), and it is here that the first cup of coffee was brewed, and it from this city’s name that we derived the word “mocha,” eventually bastardized to mean “chocolate latte.”
As legend has it, the first coffee bean drink was invented here in the early 13th century CE, by a Muslim hermit named al-Shadhili. In Ethiopia, the cradle of coffee civilization, people chewed the beans, or made pastes out of them, or brewed them into tea. But al-Shadhili is credited with the invention of the coffee drink.
The exact story is unknown, so here are 5 for you to consider:
- al-Shadhili, when it was discovered that he and the king’s daughter were playing footsies, was banished to the wilderness, where he lived on coffee beans. The Angel Gabriel approached the hermit, and told him the king was stricken, and that he could save him with the bean-based brew.
- he discovered them one night after prayer
- he discovered them while fasting in the wilderness
- the Angel Gabriel told him a coffee-heavy diet could lead him to sainthood
- he saw people consuming the berries while visiting Ethiopia, and brought the habit back to Yemen
It is from this port on the Red Sea that coffee travelled to Europe just 400 years ago. It was first offered to passing Portuguese sailors, who brought the beans home with them, and from Portugal, the recipe for one of the world’s most ubiquitous drinks spread to Europe. In 1616, Sir Middleton came to Al Makkha to inquire about this recipe, and brought back to England many bags of beans, introducing his homeland to a new global phenomenon. In 1622, Captain Pieter van der Broeke came to Al Makkha to acquire beans for the Dutch East India Company to trade.
Towards the end of the 17th century, when coffee was introduced to America, Yemen’s control over the global coffee trade (and Yemen controlled it all) started to decline, eventually fading into obscurity altogether.
A friend of mine once asked me if coffee came from South America. She was thinking of chocolate. I had no idea until I started reading about coffee.
Whatever the case may be, like the story of Kaldi and the goats, store it away for the realm of dreams and daydreams, and understand that this is just one important stop in the bean’s journey from Ethiopia to present day coffeehouses.
And, whenever you’re cramming for a midterm with a gallon of hot latte, or spending your Sunday morning at the local coffeeshop, remember you have the Muslim nations to thank for this gift.